19th century optical device often used by artists to make quick sketches in the feild. “Camera Obscura” means “dark room” invented by Johann Zahn in 1685. Sliding Wooden Box Camera. It uses a pinhole or lens to project an image of the scene outside upside-down onto a viewing surface.
sliding box camera
The first photograph was taken approximately 1817. Later, in 1827, he made permanent images using a sliding wooden box camera. This was made by Charles and Vincent Chevalier in Paris, France. His first permanent photograph in 1827 by coating a pewter plate with bitumen and exposing the plate to light. The bitumen hardened where light struck. The unhardened areas were then dissolved away.
Druy plates have been available since 1855. it was not until the invention of the gelatin dry plate in 1871 by Richard Leach Maddox that they rivalled wet plates in speed and quality. For the first time, cameras could be made small enough to be hand-held. The shortened exposure times that made candid photography possible also necessitated another innovation, the mechanical shutter. The very first shutters were separate accessories, though built-in shutters were common by the turn of the century.
The use of photographic film was created by George Eastman, who started the manufactering paper film in 1885. He switched over to celluloid in 1889. His first camera, which he called the “Kodak,” was first offered for sale in 1888. It was a very simple box camera with a fixed-focus lens and single shutter speed. In 1900 the Brownie, a simple and very inexpensive box camera that introduced the concept of the snapshot was introduced.
In 1934 the 135 cartridge was introduced. Their poor quality produces amazing, ethereal photos with vignetting, screwed up colours and contrast. Light leaks create colour distortions and the simple lens blurs the edges of images
All these cameras produce 7.2×9.5cm prints on Polaroid 100-series packfilm, and the more expensively produced models can be capable of very good results. Many accessories were made for these cameras including, but not limited to, portrait kits, close-up kits, and electric external flashes.